DEFENCE TECHNIQUES

THE MYSTERIES IN THE REPRODUCTION OF ANIMALS

THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS

NATURE AND TECHNOLOGY

 

DEFENCE TECHNIQUES


This animal, which looks like a dreaful snake, is in fact nothing but a caterpiller that is only a few centimetres long.

The animal on the right page is not a snake but a tiny caterpillar, simply a tiny "caterpillar". This animal protects itself from its enemies by its similarity to a snake. When attacked by an enemy, this tiny creature calmly turns its tail towards its enemy and puffs it up. At that moment, a dreadful snake shows up right in the face of the enemy, which has no other choice than to run away and save itself.
The caterpillar’s tail looks so much like a snake that even the sparkle of the eye, within the dark spots that stand for the snake’s eyes, is not left out. As an extremely slow-mover and thus a very easy prey for its enemies, the caterpillar successfully escapes from many dangers owing to this extraordinary feature of its body.

How did the caterpillar acquire such a trait? Such a striking "design" must unquestionably have a satisfactory explanation. Now, let us examine the scenarios that could be fabricated as an answer to this question:

Scenario 1: Many years ago, a caterpillar looking for ways to protect itself from enemy attacks, started carefully observing its surroundings. It one day realised that all its enemies are afraid of snakes. At that moment, it looked at its body and decided to make it "look like" a snake. (We cannot provide an explanation as to how it would manage to make its body look like a snake’s, how it would set up its outward appearance, the colour of its skin and the shape of its body to look like a snake! Let us say that it would "do its best, force itself and, in the end, do something". It, however, had a very limited time to "change". For it would spend a very short time of its life as a caterpillar, and then it would become a butterfly and fly.

It is very important that nothing was left out as it "changed" its body, because it had only one chance to test its new tail. If the first trial was not successful and if it could not deceive its enemy, all its efforts would be wasted, and on top of that it would lose its life. Certainly, it had to survive during this self-re-construction process. However, chance was on its side and it did not fall prey to its enemies. Finally, it achieved the difficult task and "made" its tail look like a snake.

Scenario 2: Trees, flowers, insects, the sky, water, rain, sun and, in brief, all powers prevalent on earth united to establish a system for themselves and simply added a tail to the caterpillar within this system !
Scenario 3: The great power called ‘coincidence’ (!) has added a snake-like tail to the caterpillar just as it gave various things to all living beings.

One does not have to be very intelligent to see the inconsistency in these scenarios, all based on the Theory of Evolution. Neither is the caterpillar an attentive and observant designer, nor has the earth itself a system that has the ability to design and create. In other words, neither can a living thing interfere in its own body to acquire advanced features or change itself into another species, nor is there a mechanism outside of it to do this. (This subject is described in detail in the chapter on the Theory of Evolution.)

Those who regard nature as a highly skilled machine and believe such things as "nature discovered", "wonder of nature", "mother nature", etc., know very well that what they mean by "nature" is the air, water, earth, trees, flowers and insects. In short, they mean the whole world and the solar system in which our world is located. If people were told that all living things were "made by the world" or "produced by the earth", they would most probably laugh. However, propaganda using the words "nature-cosmos" makes people regard nature almost like a conscious being. One must not forget that nature is the name of the extraordinarily orderly and perfect system we view, not the name of its establisher and eternal life-bestower. Allah created all living beings on earth and they continue to live, along with whatever features Allah has endowed them.

In this chapter of the site, we are going to review the defence systems of some animals in nature. While doing this, we have to keep in mind a very important point: much of nature is based on a continuous relationship between living things that hunt and that are hunted. This relationship rests on such a delicate balance that for millions of years, millions of species have been feeding on other species, yet none of them have disappeared. If one of the important species within the hunting chain became extinct, a great discord would be aroused. For instance, if the anteater species became extinct, then ants would invade vast areas in a very short time.

This predator-prey relationship between living things is carried out in great harmony unless human beings intervene. The most important elements in the system that maintains the perpetuity of this balance are the hunting and defence mechanisms of these animals. In previous chapters, we saw that some animals are created with very extraordinary hunting skills and thus are "provided". If nature were full of living beings equipped with such aggressive systems, then they would excessively devour those animals on which they prey and cause them to be extinct. When those animals were exterminated, those who feed on them would starve and nature would end in total destruction.

However, this problem is already settled within the system Allah established. As "hunter" animals are equipped with perfect attack systems, prospective preys are also equipped with perfect defence systems. The skills of both sides balance each other. In addition, these extraordinary skills give man the opportunity to come to know the infinite might, wisdom and knowledge of Allah, the Creator of all these skills.

Every living being is brought into being with distinct skills to defend itself. Some are very swift; they can save themselves by running away. Some cannot move but are covered with strong armour. Some have amazing "fear-creating" skills like the caterpillar described earlier. Some pour poisonous, burning or stinking gasses on their enemies. Still others are endowed with the ability to pretend they are dead. There are yet others created with bodies that are extraordinarily suitable for camouflage.

In the following pages, we will examine some of the most amazing and striking examples of these defence systems. Needless to say, however, that these are only specific examples and other living beings are endowed with thousands of interesting systems that we cannot possibly mention here, some of which even are not yet discovered by mankind. All of these systems reveal that there is no "want of proportion" in the universe Allah created and that His power, wisdom and knowledge are boundless, as Allah mentions in Surat al-Mulk:

He Who created the seven heavens in layers. You will not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful. Look again - do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted! (Surat al-Mulk: 3-4)
 


COUNTERFEITING DEATH OR INJURY 

Other than a few exceptions, most predators prefer live animals as bait. Carcass flesh is not preferred. This tendency forms the basis of the defence of some living species.

In order to drive away animals heading for its offspring, the Rain Bird lowers one of its wings as if it was broken, and attracts the enemy towards itself by dragging its wing on the ground as if injured. It allows the enemy to follow it until the nest is fully secure. When it is fully convinced that the enemy is far enough from the nest, it stops play-acting and rushes back to its offspring. 

The Tiger moth fakes its death, too. It, however, has yet another tactic. When it falls on one side, its orange body is seen. This bright colour is a warning to the hunter, which implies that the moth tastes bad. The moth unquestionably has neither the wisdom to devise this "tactic", nor the skill to turn the colour of its body into a colour suggesting to the enemy that it tastes bitter. It is just created with this interesting skill.

 

CHEMICAL WEAPONS

Some living beings can produce within their organisms quite complex chemical compounds, which if humans tried to make them would require very high technology and laboratory precision; the animals make them quite easily. Here are some of them:

Bombardier Beetle


The name of the animal you see in the picture is the "Bombardier Beetle". The defence method of this beetle is not like that of other animals. In moments of danger, a mixture of two chemicals (hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone) that is previously stored in a storage chamber is transferred to an explosion chamber. With the accelerative effect of a special catalyst (peroxidase) secreted from the walls of the "explosion chamber", the mixture turns into a horrible chemical weapon at 100°C. Scalded by the boiling chemical substance squirted with pressure, the enemy panics and gives up the hunt.

If we look for an answer to the question "how did this extremely complex defence mechanism come into existence?", we see that it is impossible for this insect to have developed this mechanism "by itself".
How could an insect make the formulae for two different chemicals that explode on contact? Let us assume it did, how could it secrete and store these in its body? Let us assume it did, how could it form a storage chamber and an explosion chamber in its body for these chemicals? Even if it "achieved" all of these, how could it devise the formula of a catalyst that would speed up the reaction of these two chemicals? It must also, after all, insulate the walls of the "explosion room" and the walls of the channel through which it squirts the mixture with a flame-resistant alloy so as not to burn itself.

The operations "performed" by the beetle cannot even be performed by human beings, with the exception of chemists. Unquestionably, chemists can perform such an operation not within their bodies, but only in laboratories!

It is certainly unreasonable to think that the beetle is such a specialised chemist and a miraculous designer as to be able to organise its body according to the reaction it will trigger. It is obvious that the beetle performs these operations only as a reflex, unaware of the outcome. No creature with such a superior power and wisdom exists in nature. Humans cannot make such a creature. Creating such a complex creature aside, scientists have not even been able to make a protein - one of the simplest foundational chemicals of life - although they have samples of it in their hand.

It is obvious that a being that has exalted knowledge and power - Allah - created the animal. The "Bombardier Beetle", just as billions of other things that are created, is only one example of His boundless power and matchless creation.
 


THE ACIDIC DEFEMCE OF THE RED-FACED CATERPILLER

The red-faced caterpillar, which has a similar defence system to that of the bombardier beetle, squirts an acid it produces in its own body at its attackers. It, too, just as the bombardier beetle, is not an extraordinary chemist, a magical biologist or a miraculous designer, but a "sign" created as an example of the existence and power of Allah.

THE SMELL BOMBS OF THE SKUNK AND MARROW BUG

The sole feature of the chemical substance that skunks squirt on their enemies is its awful smell. This disgusting and permanent smell is enough to protect them from their enemies. The marrow bug you see on the right is another animal with the same defence mechanism.

The savage Aspidontus fish benefits from its resemblance to the Cleaner fish (in the picture both are seen one on top of one another). It comes near to the fish that hope to be cleaned up and tears pieces from their tails and fins.

The first picture belongs to a bee, and the second one belongs to a fly. Owing to this resemblance, enemies of the fly stay away from it thinking that it is a bee. In addition to the resemblance of the fly to the bee, it has also a buzzing feature just like bees. Moreover, when attacked by an enemy, this fly takes the aggressive position of bees by lifting its wings upwards and bending its body forward.



ARMOURS AND SPIKES

Some animals move extremely slowly and do not have the chance to run away and hide from their enemies. There is yet another defence mechanism given to them: their armours and spikes.

At an instant of danger, this reptile takes its tail in its mouth and forms a circular shape. Meanwhile, the armour covering its whole body protects it from all kinds of external dangers.

The pill bug rolls inside, takes the shape of a ball at a moment of danger, and is protected, thanks to its strong shell.

The hedgehog is the most famous of all the animals that protect themselves with their spikes. The animal, which moves very slowly, would surely have disappeared millions of years ago were it not protected by such a system. The protection method that enables its survival is assuredly neither "thought up" nor "produced" by it, nor brought into existence by coincidence. The animal is simply created like that and that is all.

The pangolin's hard armour looks like a cone. When it curls up, the armour on it pricks up. Almost no animal can open this sharp-edged armour.

 

Camouflage

Some animals are protected by their body structures and appearances, which are extremely adaptable to their habitat. Camouflage features Allah bestowed upon those animals are so harmonious with their habitat that when you look at their pictures, you cannot tell whether they are plants or animals. Sometimes you cannot distinguish the animal from its surroundings. The camouflage is so effective and deft that it is obvious that this is a specially designed and "created" defence mechanism. 


Three butterflies camouflaged on tree trunks.

IS IT A DRY LEAF OR A BUTTERFLY? 

At first glance, perceived as a dry leaf, the picture (on the left) actually is of a butterfly. The leaf-like wings, which have many details on them - vessels to rotten parts and intonations of colour - provide an excellent protection for the butterflies. 
It is indeed impossible to overlook this incredible resemblance between the butterfly and the leaf (even the vessels and dried parts of the leaf are not omitted) and call it "chance". Is it not equally nonsense to accept that the butterfly made itself "leaf-like"?

 

 

The lives of grasshoppers that feed on leaves pass naturally among the leaves. Because the colour of their bodies resembles that of leaves, it is generally not possible for their greatest enemies, lizards and birds, to notice them. Thus, grasshoppers live and feed in safety.
No one can claim that grasshoppers were transformed to "become like leaves" because they spent time besides leaves, or that they somehow turned themselves into leaves.  It is clear that the leaf-eating grasshoppers were created along with such a camouflage so that they could survive.

The mantis is one of those insects that are created in harmony with their habitat. They conceal themselves sometimes on leaves, and sometimes on branches. The only weapon they have is the shape and colour of their bodies. In this way, they hide from their enemies.

 


This branch, which seems as if full with flowers, has only scores of caterpillars on it.

 


The snake on the left can camouflage itself perfectly on the forest floor covered with leaves. The colour of its skin provides it a great advantage during hunting as well as defence.

 

Green leaves and a green frog.


Another example of a creature with camouflage: two frogs having exactly the same skin colour as the pattern on the tree trunk.

 


It is quite difficult to distinguish snakes among the leaves.


The colour of the gazelle, which is the same as the pasture, is a great advantage for the animal.

 

 


Gobies appear no different from rocks covered with moss and plankton

 


It is hard to distinguish the Minnow fish among the pebbles even in a shallow pool.

 

 


Another example of a creature with camouflage.


The caterpilar seen above can easily hide away from its enemies owing to its perfect resemblance to the extension of a tree. 


It is not so easy to distinguish the yellow spider, which has concealed itself in order to hunt flies, from the flower on which it lies.


There is a caterpillar among the leaves.

 

 

 


A leaf louse resembling a spike. 

 


On the picture above are four caterpillars among the branches.  

 


ALTERNATING FUR COLOUR ACCORDING TO THE SEASON AND GROUND

 


The colours and patterns of the birds' feathers, birds that nest on the ground, provide them a perfect disguise among the leaves. The eggs of these birds have also the same kind of colours and pattern so that they too can go unnoticed.

The characteristic common to the bird at the top and the rabbit at the bottom is that the colours of their feathers change according to the season. These animals put on pure white clothes in winter months whereas they take on a new look in the spring in accordance with the colour of the soil and vegetation. 
Changing colours according to habitat is realised through very complex mechanisms in the animals' bodies. These mechanisms, which can be said to resemble the tanning of human skin under the sun, cause colour changes in the coat and fur of the animals. Just as we cannot prevent our body from tanning or burning under the sun (except by utilising special methods of protection), the animals too have no control over the changes in their bodies. The important thing is that this feather change provides a great protection for the animal. Turning white on snowy winter days and ochre in other seasons, its feathers provide great camouflage for the animal. 

It could well have been the reverse; the animal could have been ochre in winter and pure white in summer, or it could never have changed colour. In short, there is an obvious wisdom and calculation in the alternation of the colours according to the seasons. The animal cannot estimate and control this. Certainly the One Who created the animal endowed it with such a protection.

 


THE PRIVILEGE OF RED

 


The protection of some animals depends on the discouraging effect of red. For instance, in a moment of danger, the tree grasshopper shows the red on its back to its enemy, while crabs disclose the red colour in their pincers. The interesting thing is that the red part in the animal’s body is located in such a place that it is normally not seen yet can easily be disclosed in a moment of danger. This helps it create an "effect which is "shocking" to the attacker.


SEEMING MORE DREADFUL THAN THE ACTUAL

In a moment of danger, the lizard in the picture swells itself and makes its body seem far greater than it really is. When it swells up, a mane emerging around its head makes it look even more terrifying.

FALSE EYES
Another admirable and amazing method of defence is "false eyes". There are figures on the bodies of some animals that can be called "false eyes". The "false eyes" are so convincing that other animals that wish to hunt these animals cannot escape thinking that they face a much bigger animal. On the other hand, the animals possessing these "false eyes" enjoy the comfort of this trait of which they are not even aware.

When some butterflies open their wings, we encounter a pair of eyes, with all their symmetry and detail. These eyes alone are more than sufficient to convince their enemies that what they face is not a butterfly. Particularly, the false faces of some butterfly species such as the Shonling butterfly, seen below, are so perfect with their shiny eyes, facial features, frowning eyebrows, mouth and nose that the overall picture is quite discouraging to most of its enemies.
It is impossible to claim that this extraordinary picture emerged as the result of "an interesting coincidence". When the below picture is examined in detail, we understand that these facial features cannot have been formed by chance. Can coincidence make symmetry? Can coincidence form the same colours and designs in two different places? Certainly not. This claim is quite meaningless and unscientific.

Could the butterfly possibly make this system on its own, thinking that it would be useful? The answer to that question is certainly "no".

It is out of the question that a caterpillar with a life span of a few weeks could play on its own colours, designs, and make a drawing surpassing even that of artists, and use this for defence purposes.

Like all other living things, Allah also created these beings with "false eyes". The owner of their flawless design is certainly Allah, the Sustainer of all the Worlds.


False organs work not only for frightening but also for escape. The tail part of the moth in the below picture has the look of a head with antennae. This shape causes attackers to head towards the tail of the moth, taking it for the head. The moth also misleads the attacker by turning its back. This target-confusing operation helps the moth gain time to escape. The same "false head" look is also seen in the butterfly above.

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This green caterpillar can protect itself from its enemy thanks to the false eyes on its tail. (left)

The thornback ray fish swims into its nest and leaves its tail outside. On the tail is a pair of "eyes". Other fish around it do not dare to approach it as the false eyes in the tail make them think that it is awake.


AMAZING ARCHITECTS

In the previous pages, we reviewed the wondrous features of the honeybee. We saw how the bee colony constructs the great architectural wonder of the hive, the intricate and subtle plans they employ while constructing it, and the jobs they automatically perform, which are quite hard even for men.
As mentioned previously, bees are able to do this extraordinarily hard work not because they are cleverer than men, but because they are "inspired" so. Otherwise, it would not be possible for thousands of unconscious animals to accomplish such a hard and complicated operation, which needs control and supervision from one centre.

However, bees are not the only excellent architects in nature. In the following pages, we will look at other animals, which very skilfully overcome very complicated and difficult "construction" works, as difficult as that of the bees. These animals, just like the bees, use the knowledge "inspired" in them and construct architectural wonders by the help of some interesting qualities given to them at their creation.
Beavers are the first among the excellent architects in nature that come to mind. These animals build their lodges in stationary ponds, but these ponds are special in being artificially formed by dams beavers build over the stream.  
Beavers set about building a dam in order to block the stream and form a stationary pond in which they can build a lodge for themselves. For this purpose, they first push thick branches down into the stream-bed. Then they heap up relatively thinner ones over those heavier ones. They are yet faced with the problem that the running water might take this mass of branches away. Unless the dam is clamped tight to the streambed, the running water would soon damage the dam. The best thing to do to prevent the dam from being ruined by the water is to drive stakes into the streambed and to build the dam on these stakes. For this reason, beavers use large stakes as main buttresses when they build their dam. They, however, do not bother to drive these stakes into the streambed, but fix these stakes in the water by weighing them down with stones. Lastly, they fasten the branches they have piled up with a special mortar they make from clay and dead leaves. This mortar is water-resistant and is very firm against the corrosive effect of water.
The dam built by beavers blocks the water at an angle of exactly 45°. This means that the animal does not build its dam by throwing branches in the water at random, but in a carefully planned manner. What deserves attention here is that all modern hydro-electrical power stations are built at the same angle today. In addition, beavers do not make the mistake of completely blocking the water. They build the dam in such a way that it keeps the water at the desired level and leaves special canals for excess water to run through.
The beaver is full of special design characteristics for the construction work it performs.
The most important tools of the animal are its teeth. It constructs dams with branches that it has nibbled and cut down. Naturally, its teeth frequently wear away, erode and break. Had it not been especially equipped with a special system for this work, it would shortly lose its teeth and die from starvation.

However, as we have mentioned, the problem of the animal has been settled from the very start. Its four front teeth, which it uses for nibbling trees, continue to grow throughout its life.

How have the teeth gained such a feature? Did the beaver decide to grow them after seeing its teeth break? Did the teeth of the beaver that constructed the first dam suddenly begin to grow? Apparently, the animal has been created possessing such a feature. That this is a special creation can be sensed from the fact that the size of the back teeth stays constant. If all the teeth of the animal had kept growing, the back teeth that are not worn away would grow excessively, force the jaw of the animal and make its mouth unusable. However, only the four teeth at the front grow, i.e., the ones it uses for nibbling trees.

In addition to its teeth, many other organs of the beaver are especially created in compliance with the work it does. It has transparent curtains that prevent the eye from being damaged while working under water, special valves to prevent water from entering its nose and ears, broad back feet enabling it to move like a fish under water, and a flat, wide and hard tail. These are some distinctive features the animal possesses from its creation.
 

TERMITES TOWERS

The role of termites among the architects of nature is indisputable. Termites, which look very much like ants, live in imposing nests they make out of soil. The height of these nests reach up to 6 m, and their width up to 12 m. The most interesting thing is that these animals are blind.

The construction material of the nest is a hard resistant mortar which workers make by blending their saliva with soil. The most extraordinary aspect of the construction art of termites is that they provide continuous air to the colony and keep the heat and moisture amazingly constant. The hard and thick walls of the towers they make from soil seclude the inner part of the nest from the heat outside. For air circulation, they make special corridors along the inner walls of the nest. On the other hand, pores continuously filter the air.

For the oxygen needed by the inhabitants of a middle-sized nest, 1,500 litres of air are required every day. If this air were taken directly into the nest, the temperature of the nest would rise to a level that would be extremely risky for termites. However, they have taken precautions against this as if they knew what would later befall them.

They make damp cellars under the nest as a protection against excessive heat. Species living in the Sahara dig an irrigation canal 40 m underground and provide that water reaches the nest by evaporation. The thick walls of the tower help maintain interior humidity.

Temperature control, just like humidity control, is done in a very sensible and sensitive manner. The air outside passes through thin corridors lying on the surface of the nest, enters moist cellars and reaches a hall at the top of the nest; there, air warms by contacting the bodies of insects and rises. Thus, an air circulation system, which is continuously inspected by colony workers, is provided by way of simple physical principles.

Outside the nest, a roof - which is sloped as a protection against floods - and gutters strike the eye.
How do these living beings, with brains smaller than a cubic millimetre and devoid of the sense of sight, accomplish such a complex construction?
 


Being no taller than a few centimetres, termites can erect towers many meters high without using any tools. This admirable nest perfectly protects the inhabitant termite colony with a population of over a million from their enemies and unfavourable external life conditions. 

The work of termites certainly is the outcome of collective work among those creatures. Saying that "the insects dig independent tunnels and these happen to be in accord with each other" would be sheer nonsense. At this point, however, we face a question: how do these animals work in harmony while performing this complex job? We all know that when such a construction is made by men, beforehand the construction is drawn by an architect, then the plans are distributed to the workers, and all the construction is organised in a work site. How could termites, which have no such communication among them, and which are, after all, blind, manage to make this giant construction in harmony?

An experiment on the issue helps us find the answer to this question.
In the experiment, as a first step, a termite nest that was already in construction was split into two. Throughout the construction, the two termite groups were prevented from contacting one another. The result was surprising. What finally came to sight were not two separate nests, but two pieces of one nest. When the pieces were brought together, it was observed that all the corridors and canals fitted one another.

How can this be explained? First, it is obvious that not all the termites possess the necessary information on the construction of the termite nest as a whole. A termite can have knowledge only of one part of the process in which it is involved. We then may conclude that the place where all information is stored is the termite community as a whole. Therefore, here we may talk about a greater knowledge. Such knowledge can only be said to exist at the level of a community of individuals of the same species. This is not the only example. For instance, when flying as a mass, grasshoppers usually fly towards a specific direction. If we take one grasshopper out of this group and put it in a box, it immediately loses its orientation, and panic-stricken, tries to fly in all directions. If we put the box among the flying mass, the grasshopper finds the right direction and begins to fly in a single direction, the direction in which the whole mass flies!

Briefly, the information pertaining to the collective organisation and works of individual organisms is revealed only at the communal level. It does not exist individually. In other words, animals that make collective "constructions" such as the bee and the termite are not aware of what they do as individuals. Beyond them all, another wisdom controls them all and creates the perfect outcome, by bringing the work of all together.
 

 

AQRICULTURE IN THE TOWER

Some termites cultivate mushrooms in the gardens they make in their towers. These mushrooms, however, diffuse heat, by the nature of their life activities, which disturb the temperature balance kept by termites. The termites have to balance this extreme temperature rise. Termites use interesting methods to get rid of the heat they themselves release and from the metabolism of the mushrooms they grow in their garden. The generated heat rises up the main tower (chimney) of the nest. The air circulates and passes to auxiliary chimneys by going through small channels near the walls. Here, oxygen is taken in and the carbon dioxide that is released by the termites and the fungi is given out. Thus, the termite nest works like a huge lung for the whole colony. The air cools as it moves along the capillary channel system. 

Consequently, permanently cool and oxygen-rich air flows in at a speed of 12 cm per minute and thus the temperature inside stays constantly at 30oC.


We have examined in earlier pages that in the Qur’an, Allah states that production of honey is "inspired" in the bees. This is also true for the work of the termites and other animals.

Definitely, these excellent processes were "taught" to animals and they are programmed to perform this work. Men can manage to make the incredible buildings they construct only after taking years long architectural educations and by using many technical tools. It is evident that these animals that do not possess wisdom and consciousness like men do, were created specifically to do this job and thus to be a means of showing the infinite knowledge and might of their Creator.

The one who is worthy of praise and admiration for the great architectural wonders they construct is surely not these little creatures, but Allah Who created them with this talent.
 

 

WEAVER ANTS


Weaver ants live in the rainforests of Africa. In contrast to other ants that build their nests under the earth, these ants build their nests from leaves on the tops of trees.
Constructed in the face of external attacks, the nest is sometimes so big as to extend over three trees. The nest is prepared to meet all kinds of situations. It has many departments: from private children rooms to watchtowers.

Firstly, ants disperse over the tree on which they plan to settle (see left). After determining the location where they will build a nest, they immediately set to work. They fold the leaves they will use from the sides. In order to bring the leaves together, they make suspension bridges by clamping them together (see right). The ant at the head of the chain holds the leaf at its tip and passes it to the second ant clamping on it. This transfer process goes on until the leaf tip reaches the last ant and the two leaves lap over one another.

 

CAN A LARVA MAKE A SEWING MACHINE?

While a few ants hold the tips of leaves with their feet and mouths, the others bring half-developed larvae from the brooding nest. 

The larvae, with their saliva, function as a shuttle. When the adult ants suppress the larvae on the leave tips, the secretory glands of the larvae, which produce thread, start to work. The ants bring the larvae back and forth like needles until the leaves are attached to each other tightly. (see left)

 

Constructed in the face of external attacks, the nest is sometimes so big as to extend over three trees. The nest is prepared to meet all kinds of situations. It has many departments: from private children rooms to watchtowers.


 


What is in the heavens and in the earth belongs to Allah.  Allah encompasses all things."  (Surat an-Nisa: 126)